Relationship of Anxiety and Academic Success/Failure: Standpoint of Pakistani EFL Undergraduates
Keywords:foreign language anxiety, academic achievement, gender, discipline, coping strategies
The present study aimed at examining the relationship between foreign language anxiety and academic achievement of Pakistani undergraduate students to show how it affected their performance. The study also investigated students’ Foreign Language Anxiety level variations according to their gender and discipline of study. Data were collected from 232 undergraduate participants majoring in English, Psychology, Economics, BBA, Urdu, Zoology, Botany, and Chemistry from a major public college of Sialkot, by using a mixed method approach: quantitatively through questionnaire and qualitatively through semi-structured interviews. Mean scores, t-test, Pearson Correlation and one-way ANOVA were employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that participants in this study had high level of reading and writing anxiety and moderate level of speaking anxiety raised mostly by the fear of incorrect pronunciation, speaking without preparation, fear of reading English aloud, and unfamiliarity with English culture and ideas. Conversely, negative correlation between students’ level of anxiety and their academic achievement was prevalent in the data. In terms of gender, male students were found to be more anxious than female students. Besides, a significant difference between English major and English non-major students was noted as English non-major students had high level of anxiety. Apart from that, the interview results elucidated on the role of the teachers in the success or failure of language learning process. Finally, the study suggests that the classroom atmosphere should be stress free and learner friendly to successfully achieve second language learning.
Abidin, D.M.J.Z., Pour-Mohammadi, M. & Alzwari, H. (2012) EFL Students’ Attitude towards Learning the English Language: The Case of Libyan School Students. Asian Social Science, 8, 119-134.
Ahmad, A. & Nisa, N. (2019). English Language Learning Anxiety: A case study of Secondary Government School’s Student of District Larkana, Sindh. International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR), 3(1), 16-21
Ali, T. T. (2016). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among Iraqi Students and its Relation with Gender and Achievement. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 6(1), 305-310
Al-Saraj, T. M. (2014) Foreign language anxiety in female Arabs learning English: case studies. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 8(23), 257-278, DOI: 10.1080/17501229.2013.837911
Alshahrani, M., & Alshahrani, A. (2015). An Investigation of Anxiety Among Elementary School Students Towards Foreign Language Learning. Studies in Literature and Language, 11(1), 29-40. 10.3968/7180.
Alsowat, H. (2016). Foreign Language Anxiety in Higher education: A practical Framework for reducing FLA. European scientific Journal, 12(7).193-220.
Çakici, D. (2016). EFL Teachers’ Beliefs about the Use of Reading Strategies. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 12(2), 183-194
Crystal, D. (2012). English as a Global language (Rev. ed.). UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk.
Dewaele, J. M., & Franco, A., & Saito, K. (2019). The effect of perception of teacher characteristics on Spanish EFL Learners' Anxiety and Enjoyment. Modern Language Journal, 103.
Dörnyei, Z. & Ryan, S. (2015). The Psychology of the Language Learner Revisited. NY: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=q26hCAAAQBAJ&printsec
Ezzi, A. N. (2012). The Impact of Gender on the Foreign Language Anxiety of the Yemeni University Students. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 1(2), 65-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/ijalel.v.1n.2p.65
Fariadian, E., Azizifar, F., & Gowhary, H. (2014). Gender contribution in anxiety in speaking EFL among Iranian learners. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 8(11), pp. 2095-2099. Retrieved fromhttp://www.irjabs.com/files_site/paperlist/r_2430_141125115101.pdf
Garcia, M. (2014). Foreign Language Learning Orientations: The case of Pakistan. Pakistan Annual Research Journal, 50, 1-14. Retrieved from https://www.pscpesh.org/PDFs/PJ/Volume_50/01_Garcia.pdf
Horwitz, E., Horwitz, M., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. doi:10.2307/327317.
Hussain, M. A. (2018). Language Anxiety and Attitude of Secondary School Students towards Learning English. Pakistan Journal of Education, 35 (1), 71-82
Hwa, S. P., & Peck, W. K. (2017). Gender Differences in Speaking Anxiety among English as a Second language Learners in A Malaysian Tertiary context. International Journal for Studies on Children, Women, Elderly and Disabled, 2, 108-117
Krohne, H. W., Schmukle, S. C., Burns, L. R., Egloff, B., & Spielberger, C. D. (2001). The measurement of coping in achievement situations: An international comparison. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(7), 1225–1243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00105-7
Macintyre, P., & Gregersen, T. (2012). Emotions that facilitate language learning: The positive-broadening power of the imagination. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 2(2), 193-213. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1135856.pdf
Mitchell, D. J. (2018). Foreign Language Anxiety, Sexuality, and Gender: Lived Experiences of Four LGBTQ+ Students. (M.A. Thesis). Portland State University. Retrieved from https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/4336/
Pappamihiel, N. E. (2002). English as a Second Language Students and English Language Anxiety: Issues in the Mainstream Classroom. Research in the Teaching of English, 36(3), 327-55
Rathus, S. A. (2015). HDEV. USA: Cengage Learning. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vzx-BAAAQBAJ
Subekti, A. (2018). An exploration of learners’ foreign language anxiety in the indonesian university context: Learners’ and teachers’ voices. Teflin Journal, 29, 219-244. 10.15639/teflinjournal.v29i2/219-244.
Tang, M., & Tian, J. (2019). The Influences of EFL Graduate Students’ Gender, Major and English Proficiency on FLA. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 196, 40-43
Ursachi, G., Horodnic, I. A., & Zait, A. (2015). How reliable are measurement scales? External factors with indirect influence on reliability estimators. Procedia Economics and Finance, 20, 679–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00123-9
Vanin, J. R., & Helsley, J. D. (2008). Anxiety Disorders: A Pocket Guide for Primary Care. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=46Mvz-2Xo2YC&printsec
Yassin, A. & Razzak, N. (2018). Investigating Foreign Language Learning Anxiety Among Yemeni University EFL Learners: A Theoretical Framework Development. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 11(10), 38-51. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v11n10p38
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Language Studies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.