Man Versus Machine: Probing The Artificial Intelligence (A.I) in the Speculative Fiction of Cargill


  • Prof. Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan Professor, Department of English, The Women University Multan, Pakistan
  • Maroof Anwar Research Scholar, Department of English, The Women University Multan, Pakistan


Artificial Intelligence (AI), Speculative Fiction, Cargill, Man, Machine


This study explores the portrayal of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in selected works of American science fiction writer Robert C. Cargill. Cargill's speculative fiction offers a futuristic perspective on AI, delving into its complexities and implications. Drawing on Russell's (2021) philosophical and scientific exploration of Human Compatible AI, this study examines Cargill's novels "Sea of Rust" (2017) and "Day Zero" (2021). Employing a qualitative approach and purposive sampling, forty excerpts from these novels were carefully analyzed. The findings suggest that AI is portrayed as inevitable and with profound implications for humanity. This study concludes that the relationship between humans and AI is complex and distinct, suggesting potential power dynamics if AI were to interact directly with humanity.


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How to Cite

Khan, P. D. M. Y., & Anwar, M. (2023). Man Versus Machine: Probing The Artificial Intelligence (A.I) in the Speculative Fiction of Cargill. Pakistan Journal of Language Studies, 7(1), 43-53. Retrieved from //